Friday, May 22, 2020

Definition and Examples of Rhotic and Non-Rhotic Speech

In  phonology  and sociolinguistics, the term rhoticity refers broadly to the sounds of the r family. More specifically, linguists commonly make  distinctions between rhotic and non-rhotic dialects or accents.  Simply put, rhotic speakers  pronounce  the  /r/ in words like large and  park,  while non-rhotic speakers generally  dont pronounce the /r/ in these words.  Non-rhotic is also known as r-dropping. Linguist  William Barras notes that levels of rhoticity can vary  between speakers in a community, and the process of a loss of rhoticity is a gradual one, rather than the sharp binary distinction implied by the labels rhotic and non-rhotic (Lancashire in  Researching Northern English,  2015). EtymologyFrom the Greek letter rho  (the letter r) Examples and Observations [C]onsider dialects that drop r such as varieties of English spoken in the United Kingdom, the southern United States, and New England.  Speakers  of these r-Iess dialects dont drop r just anywhere, they do so only under certain phonological conditions. For example, speakers drop r in a word when it follows a vowel, and would therefore not pronounce the r in the following words: heart, farm, car But they would pronounce r in these words, because r does not follow a vowel: red,  brick, scratch The r-rule in words is even more complex; though you may be familiar with the phrase pahk the cah  in Hahvad Yahd, a stock phrase used to imitate this dialectical feature, real speakers of such varieties of English in fact retain a final r when the following word begins with a vowel. Speakers say  pahk the car  in Hahvad Yahd. (A similar rules accounts for so-called r-intrusion,  where some speakers add r to words that end in vowels before another word that begins with a vowel, as in . . . That idear is a good one.)(Anne Lobeck and Kristin Denham,  Navigating English Grammar: A Guide to Analyzing Real Language. Wiley-Blackwell,  2013)   Varieties of English: Rhotic and Non-Rhotic Accents [Rhotic accents are] accents of English in which non-prevocalic /r/ is pronounced, i.e. in which words like star have retained the original pronunciation /star/ starr rather than having the newer pronunciation /sta:/ stah, where the /r/ has been lost. Rhotic accents of English include nearly  all accents of Scottish and Irish English, most accents of Canadian and American English, accents from the south-west  and north-west of England, some varieties of Caribbean English and a small number of New Zealand accents. Non-rhotic accents are those of Australia, South Africa, eastern and central England, some parts of the Caribbean, and a number of places on the eastern seaboard of the United States and Canada, as well as African American Vernacular English. (Peter Trudgill, A Glossary of Sociolinguistics. Oxford University Press, 2003)   Rhoticity in British English While the dropping of r had spread  [from London and  East Anglia]  to most other accents of England by the eighteenth century, rhoticity remains a feature of accents spoken in the geographically more extreme areas of England today: the southwest, northwest, and northeast.  This distribution suggests that the loss  of this feature has been spreading outwards from the eastern dialects since the fifteenth century, but has not yet affected these few remaining strongholds. From this development, we might predict that postvocalic r will at some stage be entirely lost from accents of English, though it is impossible to determine exactly when this process will reach completion.(Simon Horobin, How English Became English: A Short History of a Global Language. Oxford University Press, 2016)   A Change From Below Throughout most of the nineteenth century, non-rhotic pronunciations  continued to be condemned, but  by the time Daniel Joness pronouncing dictionary was published in 1917, non-rhotic pronunciations had become characteristic of RP. The spread of non-rhotic pronunciation can thus be seen as a change from below, beginning in nonstandard London English  and spreading geographically northwards and  socially upwards until, in the early twenty-first century, it is the rhotic pronunciations that are marked as nonstandard in England.  Even within rhotic areas there  is evidence that younger people are less likely to pronounce /r/ in words such as arm. In other words, rhoticity is a recessive feature in England.(Joan C.  Beal,  Introduction to Regional Englishes: Dialect Variation in England. Edinburgh University Press,  2010)   Rhoticity in New York City Sociolinguistically, there is more social stratification on the British model in the accents  of New York City than anywhere else in North America, with upper social class accents having many fewer local features than lower-class accents. . . . New York City English, like that of Boston, is non-rhotic, and linking and intrusive  /r/  are usual. As a consequence, the local accent shares with RP and the other non-rhotic accents  the vowels  /IÉ™/, /ɛə/, /ÊŠÉ™/, /ÉÅ"/ as in peer, pair, poor, bird. However, as in the Boston area, younger speakers are now becoming increasingly rhotic, especially among higher social class groups. (Peter Trudgill and Jean Hannah,  International English: A Guide to the Varieties of Standard English, 5th ed.  Routledge, 2013)The distribution of /r/ is one of the most  widely researched sociolinguistic features. [William] Labov (1966/2006), in a groundbreaking study, reports on the social stratification of rhoticity in New York City. His general results  are that the absence of [r] in coda position is generally associated with lower social prestige and informal registers. Labov argues that rhoticity  is a marker of New York City speech, since it shows style-shifting and hypercorrection. This would not be the case if New Yorkers were not aware of this difference, even unconsciously. The marker status of rhoticity is further supported by [Kara] Becker (2009), a study conducted on rhoticity in the Lower East Side forty years later. As she notes, There is much evidence that both New Yorkers and non-New Yorkers alike do  identify non-rhoticity as a salient feature of NYCE [New York City English], one that (in combination with other NYCE features or even alone) can index a New York persona (Becker 2009: p644).(Pà ©ter Rà ¡cz,  Salience in Sociolinguistics: A Quantitative Approach.  Walter de Gruyter, 2013)In terms of phonology, many AAE speakers in  New York City  and many parts of the country t end to omit /r/ when it follows a vowel. This pattern, known as post-vocalic /r/-lessness  or â€Å"non-rhoticity,† leading to the pronunciation of park as pahk and car as cah.  It is not unique to AAE and  is found in the wider New York City vernacular among older and working-class white speakers, but not very commonly among young, upper middle class Whites. (Cecelia Cutler,  White Hip Hoppers, Language and Identity in Post-Modern America.  Routledge, 2014) Intrusive /r/ Intrusive /r/,  heard in expressions like the idear  of it and the lawr of the sea, arises by analogy with words like father, which quite regularly have a final /r/ before a vowel, but not before a consonant or a pause. For a long time, intrusive /r/ has been normal in educated speech after /Ç /, so that the idear of it and Ghanar and India are perfectly acceptable. Until relatively recently, however, intrusive /r/ has been stigmatized when it occurred after other vowels, so that the Shahr of Persia and the lawr of the sea were  considered vulgar. This now seems to have changed, however, and intrusive /r/ is widespread in educated speech after any vowel.  Sometimes the intrusive /r/ goes  on to attach itself permanently to the stem of the word, leading to such forms as drawring board and withdrawral. These are quite common, but probably not yet accepted as standard. (Charles Barber, Joan C.  Beal, and Philip A. Shaw, The English Language: A Historical Introduction, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, 2012)   The Lighter Side of R Dropping R-dropping  America has inspired a humorous  theorem called the Law of Conservation of Rs (formulated by Edward Scher in 1985), which holds that an r missing from one word will  turn up in excess in  another: fawth (fourth), for example, is balanced by idears or the common second r in sherbert. (Robert Hendrickson,  The Facts on File Dictionary of American Regionalisms.  Facts on File, 2000)

Thursday, May 7, 2020

I Am Me Or Not Be - 951 Words

To Be Me Or Not Be Liandra Rowe Keiser University Dr. Collins In my twenty-six years of living doing many personality tests have always given different results depending on where my life was at in the moment. Now at 26 in college doing a personality test using The Items in the 16 Preliminary IPIP Scales Measuring Constructs Similar to Those in Cattell s 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF)(N/D). Retrieved from: has given me more of a glimpse of my personality traits. Many people have forms of categorized traits that express whom that person is or can be. For example there are two types trait approaches ( there way more trait approaches but this can be a†¦show more content†¦Not believing that I know all the answers and miss know it all, no not me, but having some form of control over some parts of my life helps me relax. Obviously, warmth means how nice to people one can be, generally I come off generally nice and warm to others even if someone made upset who is a stranger. My work relates to all of my ability as a people person, which I enjoy. Being able to reason with others, hearing others point of view, can help my personal thought on a situation or idea. Perfectionism is my personality, taking pride in my work at school or place of employment. Feeling joy that others can see that my work is done and done correctly, maybe not 100% of the time because I am not a perfect human being but at least 80-90% of the time. Some of mid-high scores would be a score of 2.5. Those traits include, emotional stability, rule-consciousness, sensitivity, and self-reliance. Struggling with these four traits for a long time, especially the emotional stability and sensitivity, due to trauma as an adolescent. The emotions that run through my mind are constant, at times my feelings are up when happy or life is going farley well, then in a instant those same feelings can be sadden, down on myself and feel like a failure that everything I do is never good enough. Possibly it is a chemical imbalance that the trauma from a child has not ever been healed properly so it is hard toShow MoreRelatedWho Am I Am Me? Essay2291 Words   |  10 PagesWho am I? I am Leticia Martinez, a 21 years old, mother of two beautiful children with an amazing husband and currently working on increasing my culture capital by pursuing a college degree. I am a strong independent woman who is full of life and not afraid to take any challenge lif e brings. I am a woman who never allows anything or anyone bring me down. But before I was able to discover the person I am today. I had three agents of socialization build me. These agents consisted of my stepfather,Read MoreI Am Not You, You Are Not Me1131 Words   |  5 PagesI am not you, you are not me; emotions are what make us unique, but what we do with those emotions is what affects us beyond our own being. Thinking about high school just over a year ago gave me shivers down my spine; I didn’t know what I was in for. It was a constant battle of two perspectives: Will these four years really be the best, or the worst? One of my really close friends kept telling me not to worry – but how could I do that when I felt like I would be that one person who made all theRead MoreI Am You, And You Are Me1175 Words   |  5 PagesConnections â€Å"I am you, and you are me. I feel what you feel. Your happiness is my life-blood and your worries are my undoing. I comprehend the pulses of the universe and the breath of tall grass; I understand the lapping of waves on a faraway shore as clearly as a ripple in my glass. My soul is nothing but a tool which I can cast like a fishing lure into a room full of strangers, pulling up dreams and hopes and hidden feelings rather than trout or bass. I am everything. I am everyone. I am empathy.†Read MoreI Am Clearly Standing For Me1624 Words   |  7 Pagesbroadly been spoken topics. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Leadership Is “Having an Irrational Sense of Hope” Free Essays

string(78) " keep a journal to note their reflections and thoughts throughout the course\." NANYANG BUSINESS SCHOOL MBA 2012-2013 TRIMESTER 1 B6018 LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Course Coordinator/Instructor: Assoc. Prof Lim Beng Chong Office: S3-B2B-63 / E-mail : bclim@ntu. edu. We will write a custom essay sample on Leadership Is â€Å"Having an Irrational Sense of Hope† or any similar topic only for you Order Now sg Class Schedule: Wed evenings 6:15pm – 9:30 pm (or Saturday mornings 9:00 am -12:00 noon for extra/postponed sessions) Class Venue: NTU @ one-north SR 502 COURSE DESCRIPTION A leader is a man (woman) who has the ability to get people to do what they don’t want to do, and like it – Harry S. Truman (1954) Few organization and management issues have attracted as much interest and research work as leadership. From politics to the business world to military institutions, people are always searching for that someone, whom they called LEADER, to lead and inspire the people to achieve success or to bring about change. So what is leadership? There are many definitions of leadership in organizations. Almost every author of books has one. Bass (1990), after reviewing the literature, suggests that there are at least 12 different approaches to the definition. What is your definition of leadership? What type of leader are you? How can you be a better leader to your work team or organization? I hope you will begin to think about these questions as you embark on your leadership journey with me in this course. Essentially, effective leaders are those who can mobilize others to get extraordinary or exceptional things done in their work teams or organizations. In today’s organizations, managers are not only responsible for the planning, organizing and controlling functions in their work teams or organizations; they have to accomplish these goals by leading their people. Hence, their success as managers is dependent on their ability to motivate and inspire others. In other words, being leaders of their people. From this perspective, success and failure as managers rest squarely on the ability of the managers to understand and manage people at work. Therefore, critical to leadership success is a good knowledge of managing people in organizations or a good grounding in the fundamentals of work behaviour in organizations. Given the above, this course will bring together the leadership literature and the insights on human nature at work from Organization Behaviour. The learning objectives are: †¢ Increase participants’ understanding of people at work as well as of organizations as complex systems by examining organizational behaviour at 3 levels: the individual (self and others), the work team and the larger organizational context. †¢ Increase participants’ understanding of leadership processes and how these are intertwined with an understanding of organizational behaviour. Develop participants’ repertoire of leadership capabilities through greater self-awareness a deeper understanding of the impact of their actions on others – and building leadership habits to better equip them to lead and take effective actions in today’s organizations. Leadership Develops Daily, not in a Day – John Maxwell 1 COURSE OUTLINE â€Å"The Law of Intentionality – Growth doesn’t just happen† Life is now in session. Are you present? – Maxwell (2012) The appendix provides a summary of the topics that would be covered for each session. The approach to all sessions will be grounded on participation-centered learning and the course design includes a range of participation-centered activities such as case studies, group exercises and assignments, peer conversations, debates, self-reflection activities and talks by invited guest speakers. [See attached Course Outline table] READINGS PRE-CLASS PREPARATION The study of leadership and work behaviour, given its multidisciplinary nature, entails a fair amount of reading in preparation for the classes. Pre-class readings are essential and participants are expected to prepare the case studies or exercises prior to discussion in class. Two books have been prescribed and each covers different topics and levels of analysis. The relevant chapters for reading from each textbook and additional readings will be given in the detailed course outline. RECOMMENDED TEXTBOOKS IVANCEVICH, J. M. , KONOPASKE, R. and MATTESON, M. T. (2011). Organizational Behavior and Management 9th edition. McGraw – Hill Internation. New York. ULRICH, D. (2010). Leadership in Asia. McGraw-Hill – OPTIONAL REFERENCES – JOHN MAXWELL (2007). The 21 irrefutable laws of leadership. Thomas Nelson – DANIEL LEVI (2007). Group Dynamics for Teams. 2nd edition. Sage Publication – ROB GOFFEE and GARETH JONES (2006). Why should anyone be led by you? Harvard Business Press PARTICIPATION ASSESSMENT Class Participation/Sharing. The course is designed to provide ample opportunities for participants to contribute to the class learning by participating actively in the various class activities and by offering proactively their own experiences and insights for the benefits of other participants. This will constitute an important component of participants’ continuous assessment (10% of the total marks). â€Å"The law of Contribution – growing yourself enables you to grow others† – Maxwell (2012). Class Quizzes. Weekly seminars may commence with a short quiz to assess participants’ basic understanding of the concepts and key terms in the prescribed readings for that week. The purpose is to help participants develop a habit of continuous learning- a critical leadership habit. Hopefully, by the end of the course, participants will have built up a repository of knowledge on leadership and organizational behavior. Again, this will constitute another component of the participants’ Leadership Develops Daily, not in a Day – John Maxwell 2 continuous assessment (10% of the total marks). â€Å"the law of Consistency: motivation gets you going – Discipline keeps you growing. † Self Case Study (real life leadership/OB challenge). John McDonnell once said, â€Å"Every problem introduces a person to himself†. As a leader/manager, you are likely to encounter different types of work situations – both positive and negative. As leaders, we can make the mistake but not lose the lesson. Hence there is much to be learned from one’s experiences especially from less positive ones. The objective of this individual assignment is to provide an opportunity for participants to learn from their experience at work or working with others by overlaying the concepts and theories covered during the course on the real life challenges. (10% of the total marks). The law of Pain: good management of bad experiences leads to great growth. † Reflection PaperLeadership Journaling. As we embark on this learning journey together, I strongly encourage course participants keep a journal to note their reflections and thoughts throughout the course. You read "Leadership Is â€Å"Having an Irrational Sense of Hope†" in category "Papers" These reflections and thoughts on leadership and organizatio nal behaviour can form the basis for the reflection paper (less than 1000 words) to be submitted at the end of the course (10% of the total marks). â€Å"The law of Reflection: learning to pause allows growth to catch up with you. Up to 4 x Mini-Group Assignments. Working in teams is part and parcel of organizational life. As leaders, we are expected to lead a team of diverse individuals to achieve a common goal. Many times, we are also members of other teams. Hence being able to lead and willing to be led is an integral part of being a manager. These mini-team assignments are designed to allow participants to work together to achieve a common goal. Hopefully, they can apply the science of leadership and OB in the process and hone their leadership skills (20% of the total marks). The law of influence: the true measure of leadership is influence – nothing more, nothing less. † Final Examination. The examination will be an open-book exam of two and a half hours. Summary of Course Assessment and Requirements: B6018 Max pts Class Participation / Sharing 100 Class Quizzes 100 Self Case Study (real life leadership/OB challenge) 100 Reflection paper/leadership journaling 100 Up to 4 x Mini-Group Assignments 100 Final examination (open-book) 100 Total 600 ? subject to changes by the instructor during the course % Final score 10 10 10 10 20 40 100 Leadership Develops Daily, not in a Day – John Maxwell 3 ASSESSMENT PLAN Learning Goal Course Learning Objectives Assessment Method -class Quizzes -Self Case Study -Reflection Paper – min-group assignments -Open-book examination -Self Case Study -Reflection Paper – mini-group assignments -Open-book examination -Peer assessments of the skills demonstrated during Mini-group assignments Acquiring Applying Knowledge To gain an understanding of various concepts of leadership and organisational behaviour, such that students can use the â€Å"most useful† concepts for their professional lives. Assessment Rubrics* Written Assignment Rubric Critical/Creative Thinking To show critical/creative thinking in the evaluation of written ideas and case examples about leadership/OB. Written Assignment Rubric Teamwork and interpersonal skills To improve students’ skills for working with others. Peer Assessment Rubric Leadership Develops Daily, not in a Day – John Maxwell 4 Written Assignment Rubric Criteria Acquiring knowledge and Critical Thinking Description This refers to the breadth and depth of understanding and analysis of the subject/content. Quality of answer assessed by well-considered and supported assertions, arguments, explanations, logic and inferences drawn from accurate interpretation and appropriate use/citation of literature. Range Poor Answer and/or literature cited do not address the question well. Answer is descriptive rather than analytical. Arguments are implicit rather than explicit. Logic and inferences are not clear. Average Answer and/or literature cited generally address the question. There is analysis and arguments but they are weak and broad. Arguments and logic are piece-meal and not integrated. Some issues are discussed adequately and others, less adequately. Minimum description of appropriate application of knowledge, experience and insights. Good Answer addresses the question directly. Literature is appropriately cited to support assertions and arguments. Writing is generally logical and integrated. Nonetheless, answer falls short of the highest standard in some ways, e. g. possible lines of assertion or argument may be missed or neglected. Well argued application of knowledge with clear and logical linkage to personal experience. Relevant insights and new ideas that have considered the practical constraints. Nonetheless, answer falls short of the highest standard in some ways, e. g. , lapses in one or more arguments, inadequate description. Excellent Answer addresses the question directly with breadth and depth. Literature is appropriately cited to support assertions and arguments. Writing is relevant, logical, and well integrated. Mark Awarded Application of knowledge and Creative thinking This refers to the appropriate application of knowledge and linkages to personal insights and experience. Creative insights and ideas are welcome when they are relevant and anchored to realistic/practical challenges. Inappropriate application of knowledge. Inadequate description of experience and insights. Little or no insights. Irrelevant or impractical ideas. Very well argued application of knowledge and boundaries, with clear and logical linkage to personal experience. Relevant insights and new ideas that have considered the practical constraints. Leadership Develops Daily, not in a Day – John Maxwell 5 Quality of Writing – clarity of expression Quality of Writing – Organization and Formatting This refers to how effectively arguments, ideas and thoughts put forth in the essay are communicated and comprises word usage, sentence usage, paragraphing and fluency of expression. This refers to the overall organization, integration and flow of the essay. Format following the submission guidelines and proper use of footnotes/endnotes; references and bibliography. Has difficulties expressing ideas. Expresses ideas fairly clearly and coherently. Expresses ideas fluently and eloquently. Expresses ideas very fluently and eloquently. Has some limitations organising the ideas and following submission guidelines. Satisfactorily organized. Integration and flow can be better. Some lapses in following submission guidelines. Well organized, integrated and flowing. Format follows guidelines almost completely. Very well organized, integrated and flowing. Format follows guidelines completely. Leadership Develops Daily, not in a Day – John Maxwell 6 Teamwork Interpersonal Skills Rubric (For Peer Rating) Learning Objective: The ability to work effectively with others in a group setting. Your ratings will not be revealed to your team members. Group Name: _______________________________________________ Name of Rater: ______________________________________________ Fill in your members’ names below and Rate on a scale of â€Å"1† to â€Å"6† for each trait Name1 Name2 Name3 Name4 Traits Roles and Responsibility Behaves professionally by upholding responsibility and assuming accountability for self and others in progressing towards the team’s goal. Communication Identifies appropriate mechanisms to coordinate and correspond with team members. Performance Scant Unclear about his/her own role; refuses to take a role in the group; insists to work individually and has limited coordination or communication with others. Evaluation: Scant 1 2 3 4 5 Scant Modes of communication are not appropriate, causing confusion and miscommunication among team members. Evaluation: Scant 1 2 3 4 Scant Does not recognize conflicts or is unwilling to resolve conflicts. Evaluation: Scant 1 Substantially Developed Always fulfills responsibilities; performs his/her role within the group with enthusiasm and demonstrates willingness to work collaboratively. Name5 6 Substantially Developed Substantially Developed Modes of communication are appropriate, and maintains timely communication and correspondence with team members. 5 6 Substantially Developed Substantially Developed Consistently resolves conflicts through facilitating open discussion and compromise. Conflict Resolution Resolves conflicts using a variety of approaches. Contributions Contributes positive input for the team; effectively utilizes one’s knowledge and expertise. 2 3 4 5 6 Substantially Developed Substantially Developed Actively attends and participates in all activities and provides meaningful contribution in articulating ideas and opinions. Scant Largely disinterested in working in a group and refuses to participate; observes passively or is unwilling to share information with other team members. Evaluation: Scant 1 2 3 4 Scant Rarely listens to others and does not acknowledge the opinions that differ from his/her own. 6 Substantially Developed Substantially Developed Engages in respectful relationships with all other members in the team. Embraces and accepts diverse points of view without prejudice. Relationship Maintains cooperative interaction with other team members regardless of individual /cultural differences and respects diverse perspectives. Evaluatio n: Scant 1 2 3 4 5 6 Substantially Developed Leadership Develops Daily, not in a Day – John Maxwell 7 Self Case Study The law of Pain: Good management of bad experiences leads to great growth. † – Maxwell (2012) The objective of this individual assignment is to provide an opportunity for participants to learn from their experience at work or working with others by overlaying the concepts and theories covered during the course on the real life challenges. There are two parts to this individual assignment. a. Part 1. To be handed in on Week 3 of the course. The participants will describe some of the challenges/issues/problems about people’s behaviors they encountered at work or when working with people. As a guide, try to limit to not more than 3 challenges. Part 1 should not be more than 1500 words. Try to identify for yourself what you want to learn from this course which will be useful in helping you understand and deal with people you work with in an effective manner. While the list of questions below may not exhaustive, I hope it will help you identify some of the potential issues/problems/challenges you may want to consider: o Think about a conflict which has arisen with one of your co-workers o Do you or your company have any major problems in motivating your or its work force? o How effective is your work group? o Describe your relationship with your boss – do you find it satisfying/dissatisfying? Are there problems in the way in which people use power and influence in your company? o How is change brought about in your company? b. Part 2. The complete assignment is to be handed in during Week 10. In total, this should be no more than 4000 words. The assignment should have the following sections a. Part 1 i. Title of the case ii. Description of the case (from week 3) iii. Why it happened the way it did? iv. What was done about it? b. Part 2 i. Your own analysis of the situation ii. What theories, concepts and frameworks covered in LOB course that may be useful here? iii. Based on your analysis and the theories, concepts and frameworks highlighted, how should the case be resolved? iv. What is your biggest takeaway from this case as a leader? Leadership Develops Daily, not in a Day – John Maxwell 8 OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Late Submission of Assignments Penalties will be imposed for late submissions that are not supported with valid reasons. A penalty of 10 marks will be imposed for each day that the assignment is submitted late. For example, a mark of 65% would become 55% if the assignment is submitted a day late and 45% if it is two days late. In order to ensure equity, students are reminded to stay within the word limit set for each assignment. Academic Integrity Truth, Trust and Justice are at the core of NTU’s shared values. Good academic work includes to a very large extent, honesty and ethical behaviour. The quality of your work as a student is therefore subjected to adhering to principles of academic integrity and to the NTU Honor Code, a set of values shared by everyone in NTU. The content of assignments submitted for grading purposes must be that of your own. You should therefore be diligent in identifying and acknowledging the sources of information used in completing your work (full details must be provided in your reference section). If you feel that the use of the exact wordings from a reference source is the best way to present the ideas, then you must use quotation marks and acknowledge the source. If you choose to summarise the words from a reference, the source must also be acknowledged, as this is not an original piece of work from you. Submitted work must be your own effort and must not duplicate (in whole or in part) the work of others (including other students). As a student, the responsibility falls on you to be familiar with and to apply the principles of academic integrity in all the work you do at NTU. Hence you will need to proactively familiarise yourself with the strategies to avoid all forms of academic dishonesty, including plagiarism, academic fraud, collusion, cheating, etc. Detailed information can be obtained via the academic integrity website at http://academicintegrity. ntu. edu. sg. Pleading ignorance or claiming that one is unaware of the requirements for maintaining academic integrity does not excuse academic dishonesty. As members of the NTU family, this is a responsibility that students and faculty staff alike must uphold at all times. Use of edveNTUre (Blackboard) The edveNTUre system (Blackboard) will be used to facilitate the posting of assignments, course materials and announcements, as well as for interacting with your coursemates and myself. Do ensure that your personal particulars especially your hand-phone number (if you have one) is updated in edveNTUre. This will allow you to receive urgent messages e. g. change in timing for lessons, via SMS from me. Leadership Develops Daily, not in a Day – John Maxwell 9 Overview of Class Schedule Date Mar 13 Mar 20 Mar 27 Mar 3 April 10 April 17 April 24 April 2 May 8 May 15 May 22 May Topic Overview of Organizational Behaviour and Leadership Process Know Yourself: You as a leader (I) Know Yourself: You as a leader (II) Understanding Others: Your Followers (I) Understanding Others: Your Followers (II) Dialogue with A Group Executive Chairman Ov erview of Team Effectiveness Leadership in Teams Overview of Organizational Effectiveness Leadership in Organizations Conversation with a Leadership Coach Conclusion: Leadership in An Age of Uncertainty Leadership Develops Daily, not in a Day – John Maxwell 10 How to cite Leadership Is â€Å"Having an Irrational Sense of Hope†, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

Stone Butch Blues (1993)

Stone Butch Blues is a novel authored by Leslie Feinberg that presents the day-to-day struggles of a transgendered individual by bringing to light the practices through which sexual and gendered identities are culturally generated and imposed in an orderly manner.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Stone Butch Blues (1993) specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More At first glance, the novel appears to be a fictitious narrative about a lesbian by the name of Jess Goldberg but on a closer look, a reader realizes that the book explores the lives of average working-class transgendered gays within the Northeast urban areas and showcases the conflicts and struggles they face in the society. The author utilizes narrative friction to portray the interrelationship of constraints associated with gender and class structures. Stone Butch Blues may not be the first novel to explore the issues affecting transgender individuals but it is a mong the first to put an identity to transgendered individuals. Feinberg addresses the subject of female-to-male (FTM) transgendered by clarifying that FTM is a complex identity which should be recognized just as the male and female identities are. Feinberg argues in this novel that any individual whose expression of gender does not fall under the male or female gender is drifting towards the opposite gender expression. In the novel, Jess is faced with a lot of challenges which she thinks are connected to her gender status and as such, she decides to take a few steps towards defining her gender including undergoing a breast-reduction surgery and putting herself on male hormones. Ironically, instead of living an open life free of lies and deceit, the sex change further pushes her adrift from the kind of life she desires. Jess had hoped that the sex change would allow her more breathing space living as a transgendered individual but she gets the opposite from the society. In presentin g the life of Jess, Feinberg illustrates that gender issues and sexual identity entail social constructs which characterize the numerous humiliating and vicious punishments that transgendered individuals, including Jess, are put through for not confirming to the expectations of the society. It seems as though Feinberg is blaming the society for not accepting transgendered individuals for who they by subjecting them to unfair treatments on the grounds of their sexuality. Jess is also shown as identifying with her male colleagues at the factories and warehouses where she works instead of the middle-class feminists. She also befriends oppressed individuals in the society who include African Americans and drag queens. From the people Jess seems to be befriending, it seems as though she is attempting to foster an amicable coexistence. From this, it is apparent that the author is questioning the revolutionary class consciousness-racism-sexism relationship in the society.Advertising L ooking for essay on gender studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Feinberg’s work of fiction examines the issue of gender identity from a different perspective by stating that when an individual is not comfortable with his or her assigned gender identity, it is not the cultural institutions that assign the gender identities that are on the wrong, but on the contrary, it is the individual. Thought the novel, the author presents situations in which Jess views her identity as not only being fixed, but also essential for her existence. Interestingly, the author shows Jess as engaging in relationships and acts that go against this identity. This is the author’s way of stating that transgendered individuals who are uncomfortable with their sexual identity have something wrong with them. In conclusion, this article has explored only a few of the unfair treatments that transgendered individuals are subjected to. From this n ovel, it can be concluded that the author does not agree with the way the society treats transgendered individuals and wished the society would accept their sexuality. The author also criticizes the transgendered individuals for attempting to change their identity. This essay on Stone Butch Blues (1993) was written and submitted by user Raina Buckner to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Gothic Architecture in Chartres Cathederal essays

Gothic Architecture in Chartres Cathederal essays In the early 1100s, the French Arch Bishop thought it was time for a new place to worship god. The architects of the time figured out that if you use a new type of arch-like structures on the outsides of the walls calles flying buttresses then you can cut the thickness of the walls into the fraction of the size that it would need to be with the walls of Chartres Cathederal being as tall as they were. This would inturn make the walls open for more windows and were filled with colored glass that are called stained glass. This let people worship god in the light that he was meant to be worshipped in. The Gothic style was one rooted in architecture and any other forms of art were basically created to help embellish the houses of the Lord. Gothic churches were - in contrast to the Romanesque churches - very "light". The belief in divine light and the powers it contained had a great deal to do with how Gothic cathedrals were constructed. Gothic architects solved the problem of very little light coming through the windows, by conceiving of a superior form of building. How'd they do that? Well, instead of having large walls with large interior support - as in Romanesque style - the Gothic churches were made of "exoskeletons". In other words, the church itself was like a skeleton with the walls and windows hanging as skin, off of this skeleton. Also, the weight of the construction was transferred from the interior to the exterior by way of what is known as the "flying buttress" system - massive piers on the outside of the church. With heavy walls no longer needed, walls were freed up for large, light colored stained glass windows. And like God said Let there be light was able to happen in he churches. In todays society not many people know about the Gothic style of architecture. Back in the 1100s the new Gothic style of architecture was able to show many new architectural features including flying butresses,...

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Brontotherium Megacerops Facts and Figures

Brontotherium Megacerops Facts and Figures Name: Brontotherium (Greek for thunder beast); pronounced bron-toe-THEE-ree-um; also known as Megacerops Habitat: Plains of North America Historical Epoch: Late Eocene-Early Oligocene (38-35 million years ago) Size and Weight: About 16 feet long and three tons Diet: Plants Distinguishing Characteristics: Large size; paired, blunt appendages on end of snout   About Brontotherium (Megacerops) Brontotherium is one of those prehistoric megafauna mammals that has been discovered over and over again by generations of paleontologists, as a result of which it has been known by no less than four different names (the others are the equally impressive Megacerops, Brontops and Titanops). Lately, paleontologists have largely settled on Megacerops (giant horned face), but Brontotherium (thunder beast) has proven more enduring with the general public - perhaps because it evokes a creature that has experienced its own share of naming issues, Brontosaurus. The North American Brontotherium (or whatever you choose to call it) was very similar to its close contemporary, Embolotherium, albeit slightly bigger and sporting a different head display, which was larger in males than in females. Befitting its similarity to the dinosaurs that preceded it by tens of millions of years (most notably the hadrosaurs, or duck-billed dinosaurs), Brontotherium had an unusually small brain for its size. Technically, it was a perissodactyl (odd-toed ungulate), which places it in the same general family as prehistoric horses and tapirs, and theres some speculation that it may have figured on the lunch menu of the huge carnivorous mammal Andrewsarchus. One other odd-toed ungulate to which Brontotherium bears a marked resemblance is the modern rhinoceros, to which the thunder beast was only distantly ancestral. Just like rhinos, though, Brontotherium males battled each other for the right to mate - one fossil specimen bears direct evidence of a healed rib injury, which could only have been inflicted by the twin nasal horns of another Brontotherium male. Sadly, along with its fellow brontotheres, Brontotherium went extinct around the middle of the Cenozoic Era, 35 million years ago - possibly because of climate change and the dwindling of its accustomed food sources.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Healthcare Heat Lamps Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Healthcare Heat Lamps - Essay Example To be noted, these processes are often followed through the implementations of standard costing methods (Berger, 2011). However, standard costing possesses both negatives and positives in offering better control to the management when applying cost management strategies. The same will be discussed in this report, taking the example of Healthcare Heat Lamps. Starting with a generalised perspective, the term, ‘standard costing’ will be defined along with the key assumptions of these mechanisms. Standard Costing The term ‘Standard’ refers to the creation of a benchmark or yardstick. Accordingly, the word ‘Standard Costing’ has been defined by the Institute of Cost and Management Accountant of London as a predetermined cost which is taken into concern when producing or performing other operations to distribute each product and/or service to the customers under normal economic conditions. The cost variables considered in standard costing procedures m ight be based on technological requirements for the materials, labour and overheads for the decided period of time as well as effective analysis of the working conditions (Dosen, 2013). In simple terms, standard costing can be described as the technique of designing the criteria of costs as well as revenues (Shaub, 2010). To be precise, standard costing is a traditional concept of accounting which aims at determining the standard of each elementary cost and thus, often acts as a procedure of comparing the predetermined costs with the actual costs. Technically, it is considered as quite beneficial in discovering the deviations that are financially well known as ‘variances’. ‘Variances’ can be defined as the predetermined rate that is generally implemented in the standard costing as well as budgetary control systems. It can be affirmed in this context that the analysis of variances is deemed to be essential to summarize the incidents as well as defining the p rocess of standard costing so as to support the cost control aims of the company (Sivakumar, 2009). The method of standard costing might be based on an assortment of key factors that have been mentioned below. Determining the suitable benchmarks for each component in terms of cost variances Establishment of information regarding actual as well as standard costs that should be executed Comparing actual costs with the standard costs to determine the variances Properly analysing the variances to find out the actual cause of differences in the costs calculated Reporting the responsible authorities for developing and implementing curative measures to mitigate the differences in the costs as deciphered through the variances (Dosen, 2013) In this context, for the better understanding of the concept of standard costing, a pictorial flow chart has been illustrated below: Source: (Kingdee, n.d.) The Key Assumptions Related to the Calculation of Standard Costs The calculation of standard costi ng is generally conducted on the basis of certain key assumptions. These key assumptions have been listed below in a brief manner for comprehensive understanding of